San Marino
San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino, also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marin, is an enclave microstate in Southern Europe, on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains, completely surrounded by Italy.




* The access to electricity (% of population) in San Marino was 100.00 since 1990. However, information regarding San Marino's energy consumption is hard to find online. The reason is that the country import all their electricity from Italy.


Airports: 0

Railway: 650 meters

Ferrovia Rimini–San Marino was an electrified narrow gauge railway that connected Rimini, Italy and San Marino. The line was opened in 1932 after four years of construction. It was a 32 km long, electrified railway. The line was built by Società Anonima delle Ferrovie e Tramvie Padane, with 12 tunnels and 6 major bridges. The railway was closed in World War II and was not reopened after the war. Roads, bicycle roads and residential homes were built on the railway track. The train was restored by citizen's initiative and returned to San Marino. In 2012, 650 meters of the track was reconstructed and the train is in the country.

Railway Route From 1932 To 1944:


According to tradition, San Marino is founded by Marinus, a Christian stonemason seeking refuge from religious persecution on Mount Titano.
The first captains regent - acting as joint heads of state - are appointed.
Sammarinese armed force was founded. Sammarinese artmed force is the national military defence forces of the country of San Marino.
The Pope awards the towns of Fiorentino, Montegiardino and Serravalle to San Marino. The town of Faetano joins the republic in 1464, defining its present-day borders.
Cesare Borgia occupies San Marino for several months until his death.
San Marino's constitution, which provides for a parliamentary government, is laid out in the Statutes of 1600.
Papacy recognises San Marino's independence.
Cardinal Alberoni's forces occupy San Marino. But after a civil disobendience campaign and appeals to the Vatican, the Pope restores San Marino's independence.
Napoleon invades Italy, but respects the rights of San Marino.
Congress of Vienna, which follows the Napoleonic Wars, recognises San Marino's independence.
San Marino gives refuge from Austrian forces to Italian soldier and nationalist, Garibaldi.
San Marino signs customs union and treaty of friendship and cooperation with Italy.
World War II: Neutral San Marino hosts some 100,000 refugees from neighbouring parts of Italy.
San Marino joins the Council of Europe.
San Marino joins the United Nations.
July - UN adds San Marino's historic centre and Mount Titano to its World Heritage List of protected sites.
November - Centre-right coalition wins parliamentary election.
April - G20 leaders agree on tougher measures against tax havens in response to global financial crisis.
July - In an effort to discourage tax evasion, Italy announces a tax amnesty for its citizens who repatriate assets held in offshore bank accounts.
October - A narrow majority of Sammarinese vote to join the EU, but because of a low turnout the measure fails to reach the necessary quorum of 32% of registered voters, and fails.


Basilica di San Marino

is a Catholic church located in the Republic of San Marino. While the country has a distinct domination of historic religious buildings of Christian faith, the basilica is the main church of the City of San Marino. It is dedicated to Saint Marinus, the founder and patron of the Republic.

Museo di Stato

Opened to the public in 1899, Museo di Stato was situated in Palazzo Valloni but, as of March 18, 2001, it was reopened to the public after moving to another antique building in the historical city center, Palazzo Pergami Belluzzi. Today, the Museum has a collection of almost five thousand pieces, many of which are native to the Country and its history.

The museum holds archaeological finds from the Neolithic to the Middle Ages (the famous bronze statues of “Tanaccia” and the gold stud of the “Treasure of Domagnano“), paintings and sculptures by Guercino, seventeenth-century paintings and ancient coins of San Marino (1865-1938) as well as artifacts from ancient Egypt, Etruscan and Roman.

Three Towers of
San Marino

are a group of towers located in San Marino. Located on the three peaks of Monte Titano in the capital, also called San Marino, they are depicted on both the national flag and coat of arms.

Str. SottomontanaViale GamellaViale Campo dei GiudeiThe GuaitaThe CestaThe Montale

The Guaita

is the oldest of the three towers, and the most famous. It was constructed in the 11th century and served briefly as a prison. It was rebuilt numerous times and reached its current form in the 15th century during the war fought between San Marino and the House of Malatesta.

The Cesta

is located on the highest of Monte Titano's summits. A museum to honour Saint Marinus, created in 1956, is located in this tower and showcases over 1,550 weapons dating from the Medieval Era to the modern day. It was constructed in the 13th century on the remains of an older Roman fort.

The Montale

is located on the smallest of Monte Titano's summits. Unlike the other towers, this one is not open to the public. It was constructed in the 14th century. It is thought to have been constructed to give protection against the increasing power of the Malatesta family in that region. It was also used as a prison, and accordingly, the only entrance to the tower is a door about seven metres from ground level, which was common for prison architecture of the time.

@Presented by Haiqingqing Qi 2020